Dynamic Motion Seats offer better cost and better capability for your simulators. The key difference is that motion capability is built right into the seat body. That key capability is a terrific advantage for your program in many ways. Here’s how you the seat helps your program.
Save Money Many Ways!
- Much Lower Purchase Cost – Motion Platforms can cost millions. ACME Dynamic Motion seats are a tiny fraction of the cost.
- Much Lower Facility Costs – Motion platforms often need custom, costly facilities. Dynamic Motion Seats fit right into your cockpit. No direct costs to modify or build your facility to support a motion platform. Little or no direct costs to modify your simulator.
- Much Lower Support Costs – Motion Platforms may need hydraulic systems to power the legs, and the big actuators are expensive. More equipment drives more cost! Motion seats use cost-saving electric motors that use facility electricity. Save in purchase price and with spare parts.
- Crew Seats and Cueing – The simulator must have the crew seats. Save by eliminating some of the cost by needing a platform and the crew seats. Buy seats with the motion built in.
Better Motion Cueing = Better Simulator Training
Unique Motion Cues – Dynamic Motion Seats provide capability like sustained g-cues, signature cues like translational lift, and pressure that can’t be done with other systems. Feel ground effects, impacts, vibrations, ordnance employment, ground fire, malfunctions, engine effects, and more. These are important training cues that can improve your simulator’s performance.
Feel onset and Sustained Cues- Motion Platforms move and reset to neutral so the legs are ready for the next excursion. This means platforms provide only onset cues. Motion Seats add pressure and motion so the crew feels onset and sustained g-cues during the maneuvers.
You can save a ton of money using a weapon simulator. The key is having an ultra-realistic replica weapon trainer that looks, feels, and functions just like the actual weapon.
The replica weapon must be able to train the same skills that gunners learn on the range. Students must be able to practice loading, aiming, trigger control, bursts, and adapting to recoil effects. The trainer must monitor the student gunner actions and report status to the instructor.
ACME makes replica machine gun trainers that meet these training needs and more. Here’s how an ACME gun trainer can save you a million each year.
Qualifying machine gunners is not cheap. It takes weapons, ranges, armories, instructors, and ammunition. Ammunition is not cheap. And machine guns use a lot of ammunition.
Let’s start calculating the savings by looking at the rate of fire. Just how many bullets are consumed?
The maximum rate of fire varies between specific M2 weapon type from 400-575 rounds per minute. Aviation weapons fire much quicker, 800-1100 RPM.
M2’s are normally fired in bursts and allowed to cool between the bursts. Sustained rate of fire is less than 40 rounds per minute. Rapid rate of fire is more than 40 rounds per minute. Cyclic rate is 400-500 rounds per minute. Most gunners fire at the Sustained rate.
Let’s assume that in an 8-hour training day, the replica weapon fires for a total of two hours. Using a simulator for 2-hours a day is rather conservative. ACME has customers who use our replica weapon systems for two or three-times that notional rate per day. We’ll also assume that the trainer is used just 4 days a week. Again, this is conservative usage for simulators. We’ll estimate the trainer is used just 48 weeks a year to support non-training times.
Next, consider the cost of ammunition. Ammunition for M2 .50 caliber weapons cost per round ranges from about 2-5 dollars. Now, let’s calculate total savings using the simulator, just in ammunition costs.
We’ll look at the cheapest rate using our hypothetical scenario at the Sustained Rate of Fire:
- 40 RPM rate of fire * 120 minutes = 4,800 rounds
- 4,800 rounds per day * 4 days per week = 19,200 rounds
- 19, 200 rounds * 48 weeks = 921,600 rounds
- 921,600 rounds * $2 per round = $1,843,200
Remember riding in a car when you were a kid and you would put your hand out the window? You could hold your hand flat and zoom your arm up and down like an airplane. Or you might hold your hand flat against the wind, relax your arm and just let the air blow your arm back. Those same airstream forces work on the barrel of a machine gun poking out from a helicopter door or window. That 3 or 4 foot long gun barrel is a major windbreak. The airstream on the barrels push the weapon just like your hand out the
car window when you were a kid. And, the faster the helicopter flies and the more barrel exposed to the airstream, the more torque on the weapon. Helicopter gunners must counter the airstream forces. They must overcome the force to sweep the gun onto the target and hold it there. They have to adapt to the change in force too as the helicopter slows or turns to block the airstream on the weapon. Gunners must engage the target, adapt to the airstream forces, and overcome the changes to keep on the target.
It’s engage, adapt, and overcome.
Realistic weapon training with the variable windloading forces is available for helicopter gunners using ACME’s replica weapon systems. ACME’s replica helicopter weapon systems can be equipped with Aerodynamic Torque Systems that replicate the windloading force on the barrels. The Aerodynamic Torque System is built right into the simulated aircraft weapon mount and hidden from the gunner’s view. The system uses flight model data from the simulator and weapon position to calculate the forces applied to the replica weapon. ACME bases the Aerodynamic Torque System force on data we have from in-flight helicopter tests. The force can be tuned to match Subject Matter Experts expectations too. ACME’s Aerodynamic Torque System is available for any replica helicopter weapon type on any aircraft mount. Ramp mounted guns don’t include windloading as the weapons are shielded from the airstream forces by the aircraft fuselage. ACME has a full range of helicopter mount designs available with windloading – no design costs for our Commercial-Off-The-Shelf mounts. Helicopter gunners can get realistic training with ACME’s realistic weapons, realistic recoil and realistic windloading. Call ACME for details.
When many people think of a military flight simulators they envision the bulbous enclosure on the gigantic hydraulic legs. Sure, motion platforms are one type of flight simulator. But, there’s a vast range of trainers that are not that complex and not that expensive. There are trainers available that fit right into your standard classroom or even in your offices. These ‘right-sized’ trainers can meet your training needs and your budget.
There’s Many Training Options
Right-Sized Flight Simulators Sophisticated training is possible with just a small cockpit enclosure, realistic controls and instruments, and motion cueing to emulate the feel of flight. For example, the DTT trainer shown on this page is from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The simple cockpit shell is filled with virtual instrument displays and high-fidelity controls. The trainer uses a sophisticated F-16 flight model coupled to wrap around monitors and ACME’s Dynamic Motion Seat for cueing. It’s a convincing, right-sized, right-priced F-16 trainer. AFRL used this trainer to conduct extensive pilot training testing. It’s been digitally linked to other simulators too allowing the pilot in this trainer to ‘fly’ with or against pilots in the same training facility or across the country. It has even been used to fly simulated missions virtually alongside real aircraft flying actual missions. The U.S. Air Force Academy is using a similar but simpler cockpit system with ACME’s motion seat to train cadets in their Systems Engineering classes and to evaluate pilot training tasks. Right-sized simulators can accomplish a range of training tasks. Smaller simulators with motion seats are invaluable for instrument flight trainers where the pilot learns to feel the aircraft but to trust the instruments. Or, smaller trainers can be used for ingress or egress trainers teaching maintenance and flight crews to safely enter and exit the cockpit. Smaller part-task-trainers can train tasks like switchology, and coupled with motion can emulate the challenges of seeing some instruments or controls while under heavy maneuvers.
Crews can buckle right into the True Q® seat just as they would in the aircraft. Pitch, roll and yaw are just a start to the cueing capability. The motion seat can include vertical and horizontal acceleration cues too and vibrations and buffets. Special effects like the feel of flaps or gear extending are possible. So are ground taxiing cues like surface textures, skids, or even flat tires. You can even feel the jet taxiing over the expansion joints between concrete sections of the flight line. It’s that sophisticated!
The Right Motion Seat is Available for Any Light Attack Jet Trainer
Many light jets have a pilot and an observer or weapon officer in the cockpit. The same arrangement is easily possible in a small trainer. ACME’s motion seats support the tandem crew trainer with a special, cost-reducing capability. A single True Q® motion seat computer can drive two ACME motion seats in the same trainer. This advantage reduces overall acquisition and long-term support costs. ACME can help with the right motion seat for your right-sized, right-priced, light attack trainer. The motion seat provides exceptional cueing capability as key component in the trainer.
Machine guns are wonders of engineering. They handle hundred of rounds per minute and thousands of rounds over a lifetime. They deal with the massive heat and gas pressure as the rounds fire. And, they operate in the toughest environments and can be exposed to shock, damage, or wear. Really, they’re pretty dependable. But, what happens when the weapon won’t fire? Worse, what happens when your weapon won’t fire but the enemy’s weapon will fire?
Weapons can malfunction in many ways. Each malfunction requires specific responses. When does the soldier learn to deal with the malfunctions? How? Many malfunctions can be dangerous. Live weapons can’t have the malfunction induced. There are procedures manuals and dry fire drills that work through the remedial steps. But, those don’t show exactly that the remedial action worked and the weapon can truly fire again. Many defense services use simulated weapon trainers for general shooting training or marksmanship. Often, the trainers don’t include the potential malfunctions. In many weapon simulators, the machine gun always works perfectly. It doesn’t matter how many rounds are ‘fired’ or how hot or dirty an actual weapon would be if used as it is in the simulator. Guns do jam in the real world. Soldiers must be able to overcome a weapon malfunction. Lives may be counting on that weapon working. Real training in the simulator with realistic malfunctions is key. It’s the safe, effective way to practice.
Think about malfunctions when considering a replica weapon training system. Training both normal operations and malfunctions builds capable gunners in the field. Consider the following when looking at gunnery trainers. The key for training malfunctions is having both malfunctions and remedial actions. The student should be able to identify the problem and resolve it. The system must include sensors to monitor the weapon status and gunner actions. The system must include logic to clear the malfunction only after corrective actions. The instructor should be able to confirm the remedial actions. The instructor should have capability to monitor the student and the weapon status remotely. It’s key to have both capabilities. Training starts with the instructor teaching right over-the-shoulder. It moves to remote observation where skilled students operate solo. The weapon system should support both training types.
Fighter jets operate in a dynamic world of banks, climbs, dives, rolls, vibrations, shudders. The jet continuously changes accelerations and G-forces. G-loads are an inseparable part of the fighter environment. Pilots use the cues from the motion, pressure, and vibrations to fly the jet. The flight sensations are part of the pilot’s awareness of the jet’s status and situation. And, G-suit pressure is a companion to the G-loads in flight. Outside of the centrifuge, there is no way to apply flight G-loads to the crew in the simulator. But, G-suit pressure is an excellent way to train sustained G-cues. In flight, G load is either constant, increasing, or decreasing. The pressure in the G-suit starts at specific loads then varies according to G-Load above the pressure onset.
Thus, the varying pressure can be used to cue varying G’s in the simulator. Since the crew knows G-load at the onset pressure for the suit, the crew has a baseline cue. Increasing pressure above the G-suit onset signals that G’s are increasing. Decreasing suit pressure signals decreasing G-loads. The G-Suit pressure scale in the simulator mirrors the pressure scale in the aircraft. So, the amount of pressure in the suit signals the specific G-load. And, specific G’s are training cues. Specific or targeted G-Loads are often elements of the fighter mission. For example, pop-ups from nape of the earth to target, and ordnance release might be limited to specific G-loads. Roll outs from the target or the overhead break in the airfield pattern can also be g-specific. G-Suit pressures can cue the specific G-loads for training.
In fighters, speed (energy) is life. G-Cues can help maintain energy.
In the simulator, it’s easy to lose the sensation of the energy drop in heavy maneuvers. This can lead to holding tight turns until airspeed bleeds off to dangerous levels. Poor energy management habits learned in the simulator can be transferred to the jet. G-suit pressures help reinforce the maneuver’s effects on energy in the simulator. ACME’s G-Suit System for simulators provides exceptional cueing for G-loads. The system is designed as a drop-in option for ACME’s fighter type Dynamic Motion Seats. It’s also available
as a stand-alone system for simulators. ACME’s G-suit system is a complete, turn-key option including compressors, valves, filters, and tanks. Systems are available to support differing needs. The system can support a single G-suit. Another configuration supports twin pilot copilot G-suits working together in the same simulator. Systems can even support multiple, independent G-suits in different simulators. The system uses pressure and vacuum components to rapidly inflate and deflate the G-suit in response to simulated G-forces. The G-suit pressures in the simulator system match the same proportional scale as the G-suit in the jet. The system uses the same computer that drives the motion seat. Integral software translates simulator acceleration signals into specific G-suit pressures.
ACME’s Dynamic Motion Seats are the perfect way to add motion cues to fighter cockpit trainers. Customers can answer other training needs with the seats too. True Q® seats are great trainers for ingress/egress and ejection training. The key is the realism of the seats. ACME reproduces the look and the feel of the actual ejection seats in the True Q® motion seats. The true-to-life fidelity provides the highest level of training. Pull/push forces, and travel distances for levers, handles, and knobs are like those in the jet. Colors, textures, rigidity are like the actual seat too. ACME uses a range of actual aircraft components such as the harnesses, buckles, connectors, restraints and cushions to maximize fidelity. We use Martin-Baker design data under license to ensure the seats are just like those in the aircraft.
Pull the trigger on any firearm and you will immediately understand Newton’s law about equal and opposite reactions. Recoil is an inseparable part of shooting. It instantly affects how you engage the target. And the effects are amplified for machine guns. Each machine gun round changes the lay of fire. Recoil makes the barrel on a .50 caliber dance as the weapon fires. Add on the long effective range of the weapon and that barrel dance means rounds can fan wildly as they streak down range. Gunners must constantly adjust to the recoil and re-engage the target. Fact is, training with recoil is critical.
Most machine gun simulators don’t even have recoil. It’s simple: put sights on the target and shoot happily certain that you’ll stay on target all the time. But, it’s utterly unrealistic…just a simple video game. Some machine gun simulators provide ‘notional’ recoil. These guns may buzz a bit or lightly pop-pop-pop using compressed gas. And gas systems just don’t provide high rates of fire or realistic recoil. The idea is that notional recoil reinforces the cue when the gunner fires. But, notional recoil doesn’t really disrupt the weapon sight picture or drive the weapon off target when firing. Gunners might need to make only minimal adjustments for the recoil. These systems are also unrealistic, and worse, negative training for the gunners. Full-force machine gun recoil training is rarer. Realistic recoil is usually accomplished with blank rounds fired through the real weapon. This does produce realistic recoil effects. It also produces a dirty gun and requires stocks of ammunition as well as actual weapons. Using real weapons levies range and weapon safety demands, plus secure storage issues. Real weapons and blanks are not suited for indoor training and are very loud. But, what about a machine gun trainer that provides full force recoil at full rate of fire? One that can be used indoors and provides realistic recoil effects? A system that teaches gunners what to expect when the machine gun fires and the need to re-engage targets. A system that can be used for multiple weapons types and on aircraft, vehicle, or naval mounts?
ACME’S Gun Active Recoil Unit (GAR®) is a patented, electro-mechanical system that replicates the recoil intensity of the actual weapon when firing. It’s full-force recoil at full rate of fire for machine guns. The GAR® system does not require blanks or pneumatic charges – it simply plugs into an electrical outlet. GARs® don’t cycle the bolt inside the weapon for each recoil. It’s designed to work seamlessly with ACME’s ultra-high fidelity replica non-guns. ACME has recoil systems for M2, Mk19, M240, M60, GAU-18, XM218, GAU-21, and even the GAU-17 and M134 mini-guns. ACME has COTS GAR® mounts – no design needed – for a wide range of helicopters (doors, windows, and ramps) as well as vehicles and boats. GARs® can be set to provide exact azimuth and elevation so the field of fire is as-actual. The powerful GAR® system enables machine gunners to finally train realistically. It’s training with the right recoil and the right rate of fire using dependable electric power.
On Display at I/ITSEC 2016 – ACME Booths 660 & 665 – M-2HB .50 Caliber Gun Simulator
ACME Worldwide’s (www.acme-worldwide.com) M-2HB .50 caliber machine gun simulator with full force Gun Active Recoil (GAR®) system will be on display as part of Operation Blended Warrior (OBW) Read More, paired with selected technology developed as part of the Office of Naval Research Fast Attack Craft/Fast Inshore Attack Craft (FAC-FIAC) Integrated Training proof-of-concept (https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=kb1lZKcmL5E); Camber Corporation (www.camber.com) was the project’s software/hardware integrator and developed the visual scenes as well as software integration with ACME’s gun simulator; Automated Artificial Intelligence behavior models to control both friendly units and opposing force threats in the scenario are a product of Discovery Machine, Inc (DMI) (www.DiscoveryMachine.com). IMMY, Inc. (www.immyinc.com) will provide a high definition, visual display using their state-of-the-art, Generation 8 Natural Eye Optic (NEO)R Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR) wrap-around glasses that boast an amazing 60 degree field of view.
On Display at I/ITSEC 2016 – ACME Booth 660 – F-15 Fighter and NH-90 Helicopter Dynamic Motion Seats
ACME Worldwide’s (www.acme-worldwide.com) NH-90 Dynamic Motion Seat will be on display,.
ACME Participating in Operation Blended Warrior 2016
The National Training & Simulation Association (NTSA) is serving as the sponsor for a Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) special event otherwise known as Operation Blended Warrior (OBW) that is being planned for the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation & Education Conference 2016 (I/ITSEC ’16), 28 Nov – 2 Dec, at the Orange County Convention Center (OCCC), Orlando, Florida. This marks the second year of a planned multi-year event. The first event was successfully demonstrated during I/ITSEC ’15 and included 31 industry and government participants, networked across twenty-two booths on the exhibit floor. In addition to working through connectivity and interoperability issues, I/ITSEC ’15 raised awareness regarding standards, after-action review, and cyber. At I/ITSEC ‘15, OBW was demonstrated using a Humanitarian Assistance scenario during five 90-minute blocks of time, with each block
consisting of three 30-minute vignettes, based on a fictitious country using Southern California as the operating area. For I/ITSEC ’16, these areas will continue to be emphasized as well as emphasizing multilevel security/cross-domain solutions (MLS/CDS) and performance measurements.
Additionally, I/ITSEC ’16 will be open to both US and coalition partners, and may include
remote/long-haul connectivity to the exhibit floor. Coalition participation will be limited to NATO/ANZUS countries and the number of international participants will be limited to 12 or less. Preference will be given to those that will be on the I/ITSEC exhibit floor. The over-arching objectives of OBW include documenting lessons-learned and facilitating identification of hindrances to achieving a true interoperable, plug-and-play environment associated with distributed training. This will allow for development of a strategy for overcoming these hindrances for future distributed training events. The event will consist of multiple exhibit floor vignettes showcasing government and industry distributed simulation capabilities.